全球首现仓鼠感染新冠 港府拟大规模扑杀

2020年就有宠物猫狗阳性的案例啊。
估计未来健康码会跟反诈骗联动,收到境外电话/短信就变红。

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香港发现仓鼠感染新冠病毒,为全球首次发现仓鼠感染新冠的案例。1月18日,港府宣布全港34间供应仓鼠售卖的店铺需要暂停营业,需回收宠物店共计上千只仓鼠进行人道毁灭,并即时停止所有细小哺乳类动物进口。

1月17日,铜锣湾Little Boss宠物店的一名23岁店员确诊,她感染的是德尔塔变异毒株,不同于香港近期流行的奥密克戎毒株。由于她并未与其他确诊人士有过接触,被列为无感染源头的本地病例。

卫生防护中心18日表示,新增一名曾到访Little Boss宠物店的女顾客确诊,她的丈夫亦已初步确诊。这名67岁的顾客曾于1月4日到该宠物店购买仓鼠,1月8日再度到访宠物店换宠物笼、购买仓鼠的食物,期间曾在戴口罩的情况,与感染的女店员交谈及付款,相距约一米。

由于香港近期的本地感染病例中,仅有该群组感染的是德尔塔毒株,且她的病毒基因序列与香港最近一个月内感染德尔塔毒株的输入病例的基因序列有较大差异,因此其感染源头成谜。

卫生防护中心和渔护署在Little Boss宠物店抽取了125个动物样本和环境样本进行化验,其中涉及了78只仓鼠、龙猫和兔,其中有11个样本呈初步阳性,且样本全部来自仓鼠。此外,在该店的仓库内检取了511个样本,其中宠物笼及动物的食物盘的样本也呈阳性,其余动物样本检测仍在进行中。

Source: 全球首现仓鼠感染新冠 港府拟大规模扑杀_财新网_财新网

北京第四例新冠感染者现朝阳区,距前三例20余公里

北京是不是快成2020年的武汉了?

1月17日0时至1月18日15时,北京新增2例本土新冠肺炎确诊病例和1例核酸阳性者。其中2例确诊病例在海淀区,1例核酸检测阳性者在朝阳区。

据@央视新闻消息,北京海淀新增两例本土新冠肺炎确诊病例,分别是1月15日海淀确诊病例的密切接触者和高风险人员。两例病例均已在海淀区管控范围内。

Source: 北京第四例新冠感染者现朝阳区,距前三例20余公里_财新网_财新网

美国再将34家中国企业列入实体清单 首次纳入GPU厂商

你们说为什么财新的报道中,军事医学科学院的11家研究机构不给中文名称呢?
其他不给中文名的都是香港企业。这十一家可不是哦。

军事医学科学院(AMMS)和附属的11家研究机构:
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Field Blood Transfusion Institution;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Institute of Basic Medicine;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Institute of Bioengineering;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Institute of Disease Control and Prevention;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Institute of Health Service and Medical Information;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Institute of Medical Equipment;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Institute of Radiation and Radiation Medicine;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Institute of Toxicology and Pharmacology;
  Academy of Military Medical Sciences, Military Veterinary Research Institute;

Source: 美国再将34家中国企业列入实体清单 首次纳入GPU厂商_财新网_财新网

病毒学:“泄漏”疫苗问题

该文章发表于2015年,当时病毒学家的目光聚焦在埃博拉、艾滋病、疟疾和禽流感。
而现在,全球都在EUA(授权紧急使用)的名义下使用不完美的新冠疫苗。
未来会怎么样呢?

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对鸡的广泛实验产生了证据来支持有争议的理论,即一些疫苗会导致毒性更强的病毒株的进化。这项在伯克希尔皮布赖特研究所现场进行的研究发现,随着时间的推移,为家禽接种由疱疹病毒引起的Marek病疫苗使感染越来越致命。

研究人员表示,发表在PLOS生物学杂志上的这一发现不应被曲解,为反疫苗活动家提供弹药。参与这项研究的宾夕法尼亚州立大学生物学教授安德鲁·里德表示,目前针对脊髓灰质炎、腮腺炎、风疹和麻疹等人类疾病的疫苗“是我们有史以来最便宜、最有效的公共卫生干预措施”。

科学家区分了这些“完美疫苗”和“泄漏疫苗”,前者可以阻止个人生病,同时防止感染传播给他人,例如针对鸡中Marek’s疾病的疫苗,后者可以预防疾病,但不预防病毒传播。

但他们对正在开发的一些可能产生进化后果的新人类疫苗表示谨慎,就像Marek的疫苗在家禽中所做的那样。Read说:“未来的挑战是确定其他疫苗,这些疫苗也可能让病毒的毒性更强存活下来,并可能变得更加有害。”

生态理论表明,剧毒病原体往往在自然界中进化,使其不那么致命,因此它们不会在有时间传播之前杀死所有潜在的宿主。泄漏的疫苗消除了这种压力,使其毒性降低:当病原体在接种疫苗的宿主之间传播时,它可以在不杀死它们的情况下获得毒性——这对它遇到的任何未接种疫苗的个人都会造成严重后果。

Pirbright研究团队负责人Venugopal Nair说:“在我们对接种疫苗和未接种疫苗的鸡群中对泄漏的Marek病病毒的测试中,未接种疫苗的死亡,而接种疫苗的幸存下来,并将病毒传播给与他们接触的其他鸟类。”“我们的研究表明,使用泄漏疫苗可以促进更讨厌的‘热’病毒株的进化,使未接种疫苗的个体面临更大的风险。”

在过去的50年里,Marek的疾病在驯养家禽群中变得越来越严重,今天,它有时在10天内杀死了几乎所有未接种疫苗的鸟类。研究人员没有历史数据来证明疫苗接种提高了致死性,尽管他们的研究表明疫苗接种发挥了作用。

Read说:“尽管Marek的疾病病毒现在比1950年代严重得多,但它变得越来越罕见,现在它在家禽行业造成了相对较小的问题,因为全球农业生产中的几乎每只鸡都接种了该疾病的疫苗。”“如果你能为群体中的所有个体接种病毒疫苗,只要疫苗继续有效,病毒是否变得超级毒性并不重要。”

Read对未来的关注在于针对埃博拉、艾滋病毒、疟疾和禽流感等疾病的“下一代疫苗”,这些疾病不会产生强大的自然免疫力。他说:“如果下一代疫苗‘泄漏’,它们可能会推动病毒毒性更强的病毒株的进化。”“我们不希望致病病毒的进化因为使用不完美、泄漏的疫苗而变得像埃博拉病毒那样致命。我们的研究证明了这个可能性。”

Source: 病毒学:“泄漏”疫苗问题 | 金融时报
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002198

上海杭州徐州6例新冠患者曾共同用餐 张文宏提示秋冬季病毒传播不可忽视

传言说GSK的员工请了一堆三甲医院医生去吃大闸蟹,一桌现在已经确诊6人,关了上海6家医院。
意不意外?

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上轮本土疫情刚平息,上海、杭州再现本土病例。11月25日,上海市卫健委通报,截至当日17时,新增3例新冠本土确诊病例。此3人为朋友关系,曾在11月19日—21日先后至苏州共同游玩,有较长时间密切接触史。当日晚,浙江杭州市和江苏徐州市分别通报,新增2例和1例本土无症状感染者,均与上海确诊病例于20日晚在苏州共同就餐。目前,上述6人感染源头及路径尚未明确。

因排查密接者需要,张文宏所在的复旦大学附属华山医院,以及上海市普陀区人民医院、上海交通大学医学院附属瑞金医院、复旦大学附属中山医院、同济医院、闵行区中心医院等6所医院已停诊封闭。

(略)

据财新了解,此次首位确诊病例为英国制药公司葛兰素史克(GSK)上海办公室员工,目前,其工作的上海都市总部大楼已被暂时封闭。同在该地办公的香港驻沪办已于上午10时许发布通知,应疫情防控要求,都市总部大楼暂不对外开放,公众服务暂停,直至另行通知。

Source: 上海杭州徐州6例新冠患者曾共同用餐 张文宏提示秋冬季病毒传播不可忽视_财新网_财新网

美情报机构称新冠疫情暴发前武汉实验室人员可能不知病毒存在

“可能”,不需要你告诉我,石正丽都公开否认过啦。

这份报告指出,由18个机构组成的美国情报体系里,在新冠溯源问题上支持自然演化理论的情报部门数量多于支持实验室外泄理论的部门。考虑到信息中存在关键缺口,所有部门对这些结论都不是很有把握。

这份报告指出,评估实验室泄漏理论的分析人士认为,武汉病毒研究所实验室涉及冠状病毒的高风险工作“提供了大量机会,使得相关人员可能会在不知情的情况下感染新冠病毒”。报告称,这些分析人士“还强调有信息表明,中国的研究人员采用了生物安全措施,增加了接触病毒的风险”。

根据这种理论,研究人员在没有意识到新冠病毒存在的情况下,可能会在实验中或通过从实验室动物身上提取病毒样本而受到感染。

上述报告称,美国情报机构评估后认为,在武汉病毒研究所实验室的研究人员分离这种致命的新型病毒之前,中国官员“可能没有预知到”该病毒的存在。

这份报告称:“有鉴于此,如果新冠疫情源于一起实验室相关事件,他们在最初几个月可能并不知道发生了此类事件。”

这份报告并未彻底排除该病毒是精心设计的基因工程的产物,一些美国研究人员和前官员持这种看法。但报告表示,对该病毒的详细分析并没有显示出蓄意篡改的“基因特征”。

该报告称,分析人士对于上述评估结果并没有很大把握,“因为一些基因工程技术可能使基因修改难以识别”。

Source: 美情报机构称新冠疫情暴发前武汉实验室人员可能不知病毒存在 – 华尔街日报

科学接近新冠病毒的起源

文中举出了支持实验室来源的几个理由:

  1. 如果病毒来自自然界,在病毒变异到适合人类而爆发前,应该在人群中有零星的感染,但9000份样本中没有一例,按自然来源的模型预测应该有100-400例。
  2. WHO领导的调查测试了209种8万只动物,没有动物感染新冠病毒。
  3. 一群科学家对原始毒株进行了4000种不同的变异(其中恰好有Delta),研究发现原始毒株对人体感染的效率有99.5%的优化。
  4. 新冠病毒含有弗林酶切位点,这个变异很复杂不容易发生,但是可以与新冠进行重组的1200种病毒都不含这个位点。而生态健康联盟(之前提过这个组织,NIH通过这个组织向WIV输送研究经费)的研究计划提过在蝙蝠病毒内添加这个位点。

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Based on experience with SARS-1 in 2003 and MERS in 2012, we know that many people are infected by a host animal long before a coronavirus mutates to the point where it can jump from human to human. An extensive data set from late 2019—more than 9,000 hospital samples—is available of people exhibiting flulike (thus Covid-like) symptoms in China’s Hubei and Shaanxi provinces before the epidemic started. Based on SARS-1 and MERS, the natural zoonotic theory predicts 100 to 400 Covid infections would be found in those samples. The lab-leak hypothesis, of course, predicts zero. If the novel coronavirus were engineered by scientists pursuing gain-of-function research, there would be no instances of community infection until it escaped from the laboratory. The World Health Organization investigation analyzed those stored samples and found zero pre-pandemic infections. This is powerful evidence favoring the lab-leak theory.

Within months of the SARS-1 and MERS outbreaks, scientists found animals that had hosted the viruses before they made the jump to humans. More than 80% of the animals in affected markets were infected with a coronavirus. In an influential March 2020 paper in Nature Medicine, Kristian Andersen and co-authors implied that a host animal for SARS-CoV-2 would soon be found. If the virus had been cooked up in a lab, of course, there would be no host animal to find.

The WHO team searched for a host in early 2020, testing more than 80,000 animals from 209 species, including wild, domesticated and market animals. Not a single animal infected with SARS-CoV-2 was found. This finding strongly favors the lab-leak theory. We can only wonder if the results would have been different if the animals tested had included the humanized mice kept at the Wuhan Institute of Virology.

A coronavirus adapts for its host animal. It takes time to perfect itself for infecting humans. But a pathogen engineered via accelerated evolution in a laboratory using humanized mice would need no additional time after escape to optimize for human infection. In their Nature Medicine paper, Mr. Andersen and colleagues pointed to what they considered the poor design of SARS-CoV-2 as evidence of zoonotic origin. But a team of American scientists mutated the stem of the coronavirus genome in nearly 4,000 different ways and tested each variation. In the process they actually stumbled on the Delta variant. In the end, they determined that the original SARS-CoV-2 pathogen was 99.5% optimized for human infection—strong confirmation of the lab-leak hypothesis.

SARS-CoV-2 contains a key mutation: the “furin cleavage site,” or FCS. This mutation is sufficiently complex that it couldn’t have been the result of spontaneous changes triggered, for example, by a mutagen or radiation. It could, however, have been inserted by nature or by humans. In nature the process is called recombination—a virus exchanges chunks of itself with another closely related virus when both infect the same cell. The National Institutes of Health database shows no FCS in more than 1,200 viruses that can exchange with SARS-CoV-2.

As the Intercept recently reported, a 2018 grant proposal—written by the EcoHealth Alliance, a U.S.-based nonprofit, and submitted to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, or Darpa—contained a description of proposed experiments that would involve splicing the FCS sequences into bat viruses so a research team could look for changes in infectivity. Darpa opted not to fund the grant, but the absence of the FCS in related coronaviruses, together with the apparent desire and capability of scientists to make such an insertion, strongly argues in favor of the laboratory origin thesis.

Based on the scientific evidence alone, an unbiased jury would be convinced that SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus escaped after being created in a laboratory using accelerated evolution (a k a gain of function) and gene splicing on the backbone of a bat coronavirus. Using standard statistical methods, we can quantify the likelihood of the lab-leak hypothesis compared with that of zoonosis. The odds enormously favor a lab leak, far more significantly than the 99% confidence usually required for a revolutionary scientific discovery.

The WHO is launching yet another investigation. Why? The studies have been done. The research exists. As in Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Purloined Letter,” the crucial evidence is already in plain sight, if only they would look. Let China keep its firewall of secrecy; a suspect who refuses to testify can still be convicted. We have an eyewitness, a whistleblower who escaped from Wuhan and carried details of the pandemic’s origin that the Chinese Communist Party can’t hide. The whistleblower’s name is SARS-CoV-2.

Source: Science Closes In on Covid’s Origins – WSJ

Covid-19 Panel of Scientists Investigating Origins of Virus Is Disbanded

又见生态健康联盟。

Columbia University professor Jeffrey Sachs said he has disbanded a task force of scientists probing the origins of Covid-19 in favor of wider biosafety research.

Dr. Sachs, chairman of a Covid-19 commission affiliated with the Lancet scientific journals, said he closed the task force because he was concerned about its links to EcoHealth Alliance. The New York-based nonprofit has been under scrutiny from some scientists, members of Congress and other officials since 2020 for using U.S. funds for studies on bat coronaviruses with the Wuhan Institute of Virology, a research facility in the Chinese city where the first Covid-19 outbreak occurred.

EcoHealth Alliance’s president, Peter Daszak, led the task force until recusing himself from that role in June. Some other members of the task force have collaborated with Dr. Daszak or EcoHealth Alliance on projects.

“I just didn’t want a task force that was so clearly involved with one of the main issues of this whole search for the origins, which was EcoHealth Alliance,” said Dr. Sachs, who is also director of the Center for Sustainable Development at Columbia University.

Source: Covid-19 Panel of Scientists Investigating Origins of Virus Is Disbanded – WSJ